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Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis Essential Oil in Mice.

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis Essential Oil in Mice.



 

         
  No. Divisions/Titles for Abstract Details  
  1 Abstract Title Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis Essential Oil in Mice.
 
  2 Abstract Source Acta Veterinaria Brno, 78, 121-127.
 
  3 Abstract Author(s) Juhás, Š., Bukovská, A., Čikoš, Š., Czikková, S., Fabian, D. & Koppel, J. 
 
  4 Article Affiliation Institute of Animal Physiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovak Republic.
 
  5 Abstract Essential oils are plant secondary metabolites possessing various pharmacological properties, primarily anti-oxidative,(An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, leading to chain reactions that may damage cells) antimicrobial (An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against.)or immunomodulative,(a chemical agent (as methotrexate or azathioprine) that modifies the immune response or the functioning of the immune system (as by the stimulation of antibody formation or the inhibition of white blood cell activity)) but they can exhibit toxic and allergic effects as well. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil dietary administration in carrageenan paw oedema(Carrageenan rat paw oedema model is traditionally used for search and development of new NSAIDs with assessment of effects after 3 to 5 hours after oedema induction)and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (C6H3N3O9S) is an nitroaryl oxidizing acid. Due to its extreme oxidative properties, if mixed with reducing agents including hydrides, sulfides, and nitrides, it may begin a vigorous reaction that culminates in almost immediate detonation)(TNBS) colitis. ICR mice received rosemary essential oil at three concentrations (1 250, 2 500 and 5 000 ppm) in the standard laboratory diet starting two weeks before the experiments. The inflammation of paws induced by carrageenan application was evaluated by measurement of paw swelling, paw weight and myeloperoxidase activity. In the TNBS model the mice were killed by cervical dislocation 3 days after colitis induction and the mortality, changes in the body weight of mice, colon weight : body weight ratio, macroscopical scores and myeloperoxidase (Myeloperoxidase is a peroxidase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MPO gene on chromosome 17. MPO is most abundantly expressed in neutrophil granulocytes, and produces hypohalous acids to carry out their antimicrobial activity)activity were analysed. Furthermore, IL-1β (Interleukin 1 beta also known as leukocytic pyrogen, leukocytic endogenous mediator, mononuclear cell factor, lymphocyte activating factor and other names, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1B gene)and IL-6 (Interleukin 6 is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine. In humans, it is encoded by the IL6 gene)cytokine levels in colonic tissue were quantified using ELISA (The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance)assay. Dietary supplementation with 5 000 ppm of rosemary essential oil initially after 2 h increased but after 24 h suppressed the extent of paw oedema. The same dose in the TNBS model exhibited protective effects on colonic mucosa and significantly decreased macroscopic scores for colonic inflammation.(is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.) On the other hand, in colon samples from mice fed the diet with 1 250 ppm of rosemary essential oil we detected decreased myeloperoxidase activity and significantly lower levels of IL-6 compared to TNBS control animals. Our results indicate that rosemary essential oil is able to influence several variables of murine experimental inflammatory models depending on the concentration used. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary essential oil should be interpreted carefully due to its timeand dose-related effects.
 
  6 Summary

Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil contains a rich mixture of terpenes; in our preparation the most represented compound was 1.8-cineole (eucalyptol), which is known to have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.Therapeutic concentrations of cineole significantly inhibited cytokine production in lymphocytes (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-4 and IL-5) and in monocytes (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8) with smaller effects on chemotactic cytokines . Interestingly IL-6(-/-) mice compared with the wild-type mice, had significantly reduced intestinal inflammation as evidenced by epithelial damage, neutrophil infiltration, colon thickness and proinflammatory cytokine expression, following treatment with TNBS.

 
  7 Article Published Date Oct 2008.  
  8 Study Type Invivo.  
  9 Substances Rosemary.  
  10 Diseases IBS.  
  11 Pharmacological Actions Treatment of IBS.  
  12 Link https://goo.gl/TrTzLW
 
         

 


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